Guide For Beginners: What Do I Do?



What Do We Teach?

On this site we have over 300 tutorials that teach you how to program.  The current language that we support are C/C++, Win32, DirectX, OpenGL, C# and Java.  We teach these programming languages through quality, easy to understand tutorials.  You download these tutorials (or receive the CD, which has all 300+ tutorials), then read the comments in the source code to learn the principles and applications of the subject being taught.  These tutorials are taught in a way that anyone could learn from.  We pride ourselves on not just the quantity of the tutorials, but their simplicity to help you understand the topics covered.  Many of these tutorials are written to help you learn the programming concepts through making games.  The creators of GameTutorials have taught and do teach professionally.  They know that students prefer learning programming through making games because it adds to the fun of learning something sometimes very hard.  There are many compilers our there, but we choose to use Microsoft Visual Studio 2005.  This is the best in our opinion and most widely used in the industry.



Programming Defined

Programming is basically a way to talk to the computer and tell it what you want it to do.  This is done by using a language that the computer will understand (like C/C++, Java, Pascal, Assembly, etc...).  There are many languages, but we focus mostly on what professional software developers use most, C/C++.  This is because it's a very powerful language.  We recognize that other languages out there are good to use too, but we will focus on the most powerful language.  For those who want to learn C# and Java, we start you off with the basics and show examples of doing 2D and 3D.  Since some of the hardest programming is done with graphics, we focus a great deal on this topic.



Key Terms In Programming Defined

Programming Language - A language in which we can use to talk to the computer and tell it what to do (I.E. C++).
Compiler - This is the program that converts a programming language to an executable for the computer to run (I.E. VS .Net).
Code - This is the language, usually stored in files like .c, .cpp, .h, .rc, .html, .js, etc...  The compiler converts this to a .exe.
Executable - This is a file that the end user can run, like MyProject.exe.
Source File - This is usually something like a .c or .cpp file.  This stores the programming code.
Header File - This stores definitions, classes, structures, defines, etc... for the .cpp and .c files.
Resource File - This stores the projects menu, bitmap, dialog box and other resource settings.  Usually stored in a .rc file.
Project - This refers to a collection of code to make a program.  There is usually a file that stores project info (I.E. .vcproj, .dsp).
Workspace/Solution - This can store many projects and user settings in one file.  For instance, .dsw or .sln. 
API - This stands for Application Programming Interface, which in laymen's terms, means "Functions" that you call from your code.
Applet - A Java application that is generally executed through an HTML page.
GPU - This is like a CPU on your computer, but a GPU is a CPU for graphics cards.
DLL - This stands for Dynamically Linked Library.  Programs use this to store functions in a file that can be updated without changing the 
actual program's code, as well as putting the same code in a single file so other programs can use it too
Shader File - This is a text file (usually .frag or .vert for OpenGL and .fx for D3D) that is sent to the graphics card for every pixel and/or
vertex (3D point).  This utilizes the video card's GPU to create amazing effects that are extremely fast.
Post Processing - This means that you work with the pixels after they have been sent to the video card and are ready to display.
This is used for special effects like bluring and such.
Library - This is usually a .lib file that stores functions.  People use these files to either hide code from developers, or if they don't want
to add tons of source files that aren't going to change to their project each time.  Unlike .dll files, once the application is created you don't
need the .lib files around to run the executable.



Compilers Used to Program

Some of the most popular compilers use to compile C/C++ code are Microsoft Visual Studio, DevC++, Ming32, and Borland.  Visual Studio and Borland compilers aren't free, but the rest of the compilers are.  We highly recommend using Visual Studio 2005.  You can get a copy of the C++ version for less than $100 dollars.  This is the compiler that most professionals developing Windows applications use.  We offer a free 180-day trial of Visual Studio 2005 with the physical copy of the GameTutorials CD.  If you are programming in Java and decide not to use J#, then we recommend using Sun's NetBeans.  You can find a link that includes NetBeans and Java bundles together here:  We offer video tutorials for using NetBeans in the Video Tutorials section on our CD. 



Programming - Hard, But Doable

We want to warn all you beginners out there that programming can be quite difficult and frustrating at times, but so can a marriage :)  Both can also be very rewarding once you work them out *grin*.  It does take work and time to learn and become comfortable with programming, at least for the majority of us.  Eventually programming will click and you will love the amazing programs you can create.  So don't give up!  But don't assume it's easy and that you don't need to spend a great deal of time to get proficient.  We are still learning everyday.



What Do I Do First?

If you are a beginner, the first thing you want to do is get our CD.  We highly recommend purchasing Visual Studio 2005, or you can first try the 180-day trial we provide with our CD .  If you want over 2 years of college programming knowledge, you will want to get our CD.  It is by far the best programming investment you will ever purchase.  Everything that we had to do to learn programming is on our CD, and more.  Hold it sacred :)  The second thing you want to do is actually start learning.  You can do this by going through the order we give you in our tutorials.  This order is: C, then C++, then Win32, DirectX or OpenGL, then Java and/or C#; it's up to you.  You don't have to do C, but it's recommended to understand the differences between C++.  When you get to 3D, you will want to choose a 3D API to use.  Some like OpenGL, some like DirectX (Direct 3D).  We recommend researching both, then you can decide which one better suites your software developing needs.  If you want your program to be cross platform, OpenGL is the best, where DirectX is just for Windows operating systems (XBox uses it).  The last step is to just immerse yourself in all of our tutorials and have a lot of time on your hands :)



When Can I Make Windows XP, Microsoft Word, a MMORPG or Quake3?

Honestly?  Never!  Well, unless you work for a company that is developing large application/games like that.  What many beginners don't understand is that huge projects like these deal with HUGE teams of 20 to 300+ people.  This includes artists, programmers, producers, designers, managers, etc..  These projects take years to create and cost millions of dollars.  We see many times people wanting to start a huge project like these, but they don't understand what that means to create such a huge project.  We don't want to discourage your dreams of creating cool applications/games, but we do want to give you a little slap in the face of reality :)  We hope it doesn't sting too much.  It is good experience to work on large projects, but we recommend that you make something that you can realistically create.  That way you can have others use it, not just leave it in development mode for eternity.  If you are interested in going into programming as a career, employers look very highly supon those who have finished projects in their resume, not work in progress projects.



What Not to Do

Following the same tone as the last question, we want to warn beginners of a pitfall that they might fall into while learning to program.  The first one is, "dating" - don't do it, it takes to much time away from learning programming  :)  Just kidding.  One pitfall that we find is beginners who have the proverbial "eyes bigger than their stomach" syndrome when it comes to programming.  We mean that many beginners will have a huge project they want to do and they aren't capable of creating it.  For instance, someone might learn C++ for a couple months, finish a class at school and then think they can do anything.  They get some code on how to draw a 3D triangle and think they can just jump into 3D Programming.  The truth is, the person hasn't even studied any graphics programming and doesn't even know how to create windows.  What will happen is that that person will try and create a project way over their experience and knowledge and they can't do it.  So, what happens next?  They then depend on everyone around them to help them program every step of the project.  They will never be able to program because they will always depend on others to supply them code or programming help to get what they want.  In the end all they created is just some little code changes to other people's code.  This is not the way to learn programming.  Sure, getting help is great and necessary.  We all have been there, but we are talking about the beginner code parasites that are formed from always going over their head :)  This is why we suggest going through all of our tutorials.  This will teach you what you need to know to be a proficient and self-sufficient programmer.  It's an awesome feeling to be able to program pretty much what ever you want, and not have to stress about every step in the development process.  Don't worry, at first it might be hard, but it will eventually click, we promise!



Direct3D Won't Compile, What is the Problem?

To compile and execute the Direct3D tutorials, you will need to make sure you have the Dircect3D SDK installed on your computer.  The tutorials included on the CD were all compiled with the April 2006 SDK.  Since links tend to change over time, the best way to get the latest version of the SDK is to do an Internet search for "DirectX SDK".

Once the SDK is downloaded and installed.  There are a few more things that you need to do to utilize the SDK with Visual Studio.  Following are the steps to have Visual Studio use the new DirectX SDK installed on your computer.

  • Open Visual Studio and select Tools from the menu bar
  • Select Options from the Tools menu
  • Under Options, expand Projects and Solutions
  • Choose VC++ Directories
  • Select Include files, using the Show directories for: drop down box
  • Add your DirectX SDK include files directory.  Example:  C:\Program Files\Microsoft DirectX SDK (April 2006)\Include
  • Select Library files, using the Show directories for: drop down box
  • Add your DirectX SDK Li directory.  Example:  C:\Program Files\Microsoft DirectX SDK (April 2006)\Lib\x86 
  • Hit OK to finish

    Once you've completed the above steps, you should be able to compile the DirectX tutorials. 

    *NOTE* It is recommend you always download and use the latest DirectX SDK.  However, newer versions of the SDK may make code compiled against older versions of the SDK not compile anymore.  Be sure to read Microsoft's release notes to see what difference there may be.


    Is This Site Just For Game Programmers?

    This site is not a game programming site, but teaches people to program through making games.  In the past we were labeled as "just a game programming site", but this is not the truth.  This site is for everyone wanting to learn to program.  This includes those who have no desire to make a game, or even play games.  The reason why we are called GameTutorials is because we teach people to program through making games, which is a more fun method in our opinion.  No matter what programming you will do you will need to learn most, if not all of the stuff we have at  We don't teach anything we haven't needed to use ourselves.  In our opinion, game programming is the hardest programming there is.  This is because the technology is always increasing in graphics and you need to be on top of it.  This means you need to learn how to program the latest 3D Video cards and amazing effects.  There is networking, graphics, AI, logic, physics, database management, interface and tons of other subjects that a game programmer must learn to be able to be successful and proficient.  For many people, they might never touch 3D programming in their software career, but since this site if for all programmers, we teach beginner to advanced concepts in 3D as well.  We will continue to grow our advanced section so that it will apply more to professional programmers who are creating applications.

    How Do I Setup Java?

    If you decide to not use Visual Studio 2005's J# for Java, we recommend using Sun's NetBeans.  When contacting Microsoft about J# we were told that J# was created for people who already had a lot invested in Java and didn't want to rewrite their code, but could compile it on the .Net framework with J#; however, there is a push to use C#.  If you have heard of J++, J# is the later version of J++ (which is no longer supported).  They both even use different runtimes. 

    So, if you want to just run the basic console tutorials in Java, you can actually just copy the code into a new J# Console Project and compile and run it.  Running Java Applets is a different story however.  J# has its own runtime that is different from Sun's Java.  To create an Applet-like application you will want to create a J# Browser Control.  Since Microsoft seems to be subtly encouraging people to use C# instead of J#, Sun's Java might be another alternative to programming Java.  We have created video tutorials and project files for Sun's free IDE called NetBeans.  Though we don't support another popular Java IDE called Eclipse, our tutorials should work perfectly in Eclipse as well if your peers or teachers decide to use it.  NetBeans and the Java SDK can be found bundled here:

    For us, Java was probably the most difficult language we have ever encountered to get started and everything setup.  Sure, basic console applications were pretty straight forward, but when it came to using external libraries, many, many hours were spent trying to get it to first compile, let alone linking libraries when it finally ran.  Let's answer some basics questions about Java that we had when beginning.  Don't worry, we had to suffer so you won't have to :)

    Why is My Teacher Making Me Learn Java?

    For those of you who are students and have to learn Java, you probably are wondering why you are learning Java if C++ seems to be the most powerful language, right?  Well, every language has its own benefits, but one of the great benefits of Java is that it is easily run on many different operating systems, as well as being able to integrate Applets into your web pages.  Java also is great for developing applications on mobile devices like cell-phone games.  Another reason why Java is being taught in schools is because it hides a lot of difficult concepts like pointers, which most students find to be the most difficult topic in C++.  Java implements something called "Garbage Collection", which means you don't need to worry about having memory leaks because Java handles the allocating and freeing of memory for you.  Finally, the last reason we have found is that in Java you can start immediately creating Applets that allow you to draw things to the screen.  If you are doing 2D in C++ you have a lot of Win32 initialization code just to get the window displaying to the screen; however, Java gives you a window to start drawing to in a couple lines of code.  Teachers can focus more on the theory of programming instead of having to teach tons of Win32 code.

    Is the Java JDK the Same as the Java SDK?

    Yes, they are the same thing.  Apparently, The JDK acronym was created as a cute PR title for Java.  So yes, don't let that confuse you when the Java documentation tells you to have the Java SDK installed, then on a different line is talks about having the JDK installed.

    What is the JRE?

    This is another confusing thing at first.  The JRE is the Java Runtime Environment; which means that the JRE applications are called when running a Java application on your computer or off the internet.  When installing Sun's Java you will want to get the JDK and JRE.  Usually, the JRE and JDK will be installed in separate folders in your "Program Files\Java\" directory if you are using Windows.  So, when installing external libraries and/or .jar files you will want to put them in the JRE bin/ and lib/ext/ folders.

    What is a .JAR File?

    Another confusing thing at first is what a .jar file is.  A .jar file is JUST a .zip file renamed to a .jar file.  You can rename the .jar file to a .zip file and then extract it using Windows XP or Winzip.  The directory structure is important in the .jar (.zip) file.  When including a library in Java you will see some code like this: 
    import  The keywords are actually folders in the .jar file, with the GLEventListener keyword being a class file in the jogl\ directory.    

    What is a Package in Java?

    A package is just a way to group source code files together.  This source files in the same package to reference each other's functions and classes.  It is also used to organize code.  If you have programmed in C++, you can think of it like a namespace.  Each package is stored in the same folder.  In our tutorials we use mostly the "<default package>", which means that we don't create a special package.  When making real applications you will not want to use the default package, but for learning the basics you should be fine. 

    What is JOGL?

    Jogl is Java's OpenGL.  This is an open-source project that allows Java developers to add 3D to their applications/applets.  If you want to use Direct3D in Java you can look up Java3D.  In our tutorials we show you how to setup a Java Applet that integrates OpenGL to render in 3D.  For beginners it can be very frustrating to get Jogl or any external libraries to link with Java, so hopefully the next question will make it easy.

    What Do I Need to Know When Adding Libraries?

    We will go over adding libraries assuming you are using NetBeans 5.0.  Probably the most frustrating thing about Java in the beginning is trying to get Libraries to compile and link to your Java applications.  Well, so that you don't have to suffer for over 30 hours like we did, read the following information :)  First of all, let's go over working with the Jogl library since we teach this in our tutorials.  The same directions should work for most any other external library.  So, first you need to download the Jogl files.  We will assume you are using the Windows OS.  So, first you would go to the Jogl download page for Jogl 1.1:

    Then you will want to download the following files: "jogl.jar" and "jogl-natives-win32.jar".  On some Jogl builds they download as zip files.  This is okay, since the .jar file is just a .zip file anyway.  You can just rename the .zip files as .jar files.  If you are using another operating system you will want to download the appropriate "natives" file instead of "win32".  Now, rename the jogl-natives-win32.jar file as a .zip file, then unzip it.  Notice that there are .dll files.  There should be a jogl.dll and a jogl_cg.dll file.  Take the .dll files and put them in your JRE\ folder on your computer, usually at "C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.5.0_07\bin".  Now, take the original .jar files you download and put them in your JRE\lib\ext\ folder, usually at "C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.5.0_07\lib\ext".  If you don't put the .jar files in the ext\ folder then you won't be able to run the applet in a web browser, just in NetBeans.  If you don't know this you will spend hours crying over your keyboard wondering why everything works elsewhere but not in an html file :)

    That's all there is for installation!  Simple huh?  Now comes the important part of connecting NetBeans to those files.  This is easy, but frustrating if you don't know the steps.  First, open NetBeans and create a new project; a Java class application.  Before you start adding files, right click on the project in the Project tab on the left and choose the Properties menu option.  This brings up a dialog for configuring your project.  Click on the Libraries section in the tree view.  Now, we need to link the .jar files to our project here, but instead of adding the .jar files directly, let's create a library so we can just include the library for later projects.  The library will encompass all the necessary .jar files for us.  Remember, the .jar files are the files that store the .dlls and class files.  So, click on the Add Library... button and then click the Manage Libraries... button in the next dialog box.  Then click the New Library... button and name the library "jogl".  Make sure "class libraries" is selected and click OK, then browse to your .jar files that you added in the lib\ext\ folder.  Add both of them to the library by clicking the Add JAR/Folder... button.  Then click OK in the Library Manager dialog so you can then select the "jogl" library to add to your project.  After adding the "jogl" library to your project you should see it show up in the original Properties dialog.  Now click on the Run option in the tree control. 

    Now, in order for the applet to work, we need to do one last thing in the Run section.  Go to the VM Options edit box and insert this: 

    -Djava.library.path="C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.5.0_07\bin"

    You might see some other stuff in the edit box, like, but just put a space between each command and you should be OK.  The applet.policy file is just a text file that tells which permissions to grant when running the applet.  Remember, if you installed the JRE to a different directory, use that directory instead of the one listed above, which is the default for version 1.5.  That's it!  Now you can add files an Applet file to your project and it should compile and run just fine.




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